Posts Tagged ‘economics’

Macro: Capital Deepening, Capital Widening

Capital deepening is an economic scenario wherein capital per worker is increasing in the economy. This is also referred to as increase in the capital intensity. Capital deepening is often measured by the capital stock per labour hour. Overall, the economy will expand, and productivity per worker will increase. However, according to some economic models, such as the Solow model, economic expansion will not continue indefinitely through capital deepening alone. This is partly due to diminishing returns and wear & tear (depreciation). Investment is also required to increase the amount of capital available to each worker in the system and thus increase the ratio of capital to labor. In other economic models, for example, the AK model or some models in endogenous growth theory, capital deepening can lead to sustained economic growth even without technological progress. Traditionally, in development economics, capital deepening is seen as a necessary but not sufficient condition for economic development of a country.

Capital widening on the other hand is the economic scenario wherein capital stock is increasing at the same rate as the labor force and the depreciation rate, thus the capital per worker ratio remains constant. The economy will expand in terms of aggregate outputbut productivity per worker will remain constant.

Micro: Types of Inefficiency — X, Allocative, Dynamic, Social, Productive, Pareto, and Distributive

‘X’ inefficiency is a concept that was originally associated specifically with management inefficiencies, but can also be applied more widely.

X inefficiency occurs when the output of firms is not the greatest it could be. It is likely to arise when firms operate in highly uncompetitive markets where there is no incentive for managers to maximize output.

Allocative inefficiency occurs when the consumer does not pay aefficient price.

An efficient price is one that just covers the costs of production incurred in supplying the good or service.

Allocative efficiency occurs when the firm’s price, P, equals the extra (marginalcost of supplyMC. This is efficient because the revenue received is just enough to ensure that all the resources used in the making of a product are sufficiently rewarded to encourage them to continue supplying.

Dynamic inefficiency occurs when firms have no incentive to become technologically progressive. This is associated with a lack of innovation, which leads to higher production costs, inferior products, and less choice for consumers.

There are two ways in which firms can innovate:

  1. New production methods, such as when applying new technology to an existing process.
  2. New products, which are a feature of markets with highly competitive firms, such as those in the consumer electronics.

Innovation, researchand development are expensive and risky, so firms will expect a fair level of profits in return. However, because the price mechanism may not generate profits for the supply of public and merit goodsthere is often an absence of dynamic efficiency in these markets.

Social inefficiency occurs when the price mechanism does not take into account all the costs and benefits associated with economic exchange.

The price mechanism will only take into account private costs and benefits arising directly from production and consumption, not the external costs and benefits incurred by thirdparties.

Social costs refer to the total costs borne by society as a result of an economic transaction, and include private costs plus external costs. Social benefits are the private benefits plus external benefits resulting from a transaction.

A transaction is socially efficient if it takes into account costs and benefits associated with the transaction – that is, the social costs and benefits.

Productive inefficiency occurs when a firm is not producing at its lowest unit cost. Unit cost is the average cost of production, which is found by dividing total costs of production by the number of units produced.

It is possible that in markets where there is little competition, the output of firms will be low, and average costs will be relatively high. This is likely to occur if a few firms, or just one, dominate the market, as in the case of oligopoly and monopoly.

Pareto inefficiency is associated with economist Vilfredo Pareto, and occurs when an economy is not operating on the edge of its PPF and is, therefore, not fully exploiting its scarce resources.

This means that the economy is producing less than the maximum possible output of goods and services, from its resources.

Distributive inefficiency occurs when goods and services are not received by those who have the greatest need for them. Abba Lerner first proposed the idea of distributive efficiency in his 1944 book The Economics of Control.

Micro: Distributive Inefficiency

 In welfare economics, distributive inefficiency is the situation wherein goods and services are not received by those who have the greatest need for them.
Abba Lerner proposed the idea of distributive efficiency in his 1944 book The Economics of Control.