Ruby: change to upper/lower case

"hello James!".downcase    #=> "hello james!"

Similarly, upcase capitalizes every letter and capitalize capitalizes the first letter of the string but lowercases the rest:

"hello James!".upcase      #=> "HELLO JAMES!""hello James!".capitalize  #=> "Hello james!"

If you want to modify a string in place, you can add an exclamation point to any of those methods:

string = "hello James!"
string   #=> "hello james!"