Quick Tip: print length, index, count in Python

print len(astring)
That prints out 12, because "Hello world!" is 12 characters long, including punctuation and spaces.
print astring.index("o")
That prints out 4, because the location of the first occurrence of the letter "o" is 4 characters away from the first character. Notice how there are actually two o's in the phrase - this method only recognizes the first.

But why didn't it print out 5? Isn't "o" the fifth character in the string? To make things more simple, Python (and most other programming languages) start things at 0 instead of 1. So the index of "o" is 4.
print astring.count("l")