Archive for the ‘Machine Learning’ Category

LightGBM Grid Search Example in R

data(agaricus.train, package = "lightgbm")
train <- agaricus.traindtrain <- lgb.Dataset(train$data, label = train$label, free_raw_data = FALSE)
data(agaricus.test, package = "lightgbm")
test <- agaricus.testdtest <- lgb.Dataset.create.valid(dtrain, test$data, label = test$label)
valids <- list(test = dtest)

grid_search <- expand.grid(Depth = 8,
                           L1 = 0:5,
                           L2 = 0:5)

model <- list()
perf <- numeric(nrow(grid_search))

for (i in 1:nrow(grid_search)) {
  model[[i]] <- lgb.train(list(objective = "regression",
                          metric = "l2",
                          lambda_l1 = grid_search[i, "L1"],
                          lambda_l2 = grid_search[i, "L2"],
                          max_depth = grid_search[i, "Depth"]),
                     min_data = 1,
                     learning_rate = 1,
                     early_stopping_rounds = 5)
  perf[i] <- min(rbindlist(model[[i]]$record_evals$test$l2))

> cat("Model ", which.min(perf), " is lowest loss: ", min(perf), sep = "")
Model 1 is lowest loss: 1.972152e-31> print(grid_search[which.min(perf), ])
  Depth L1 L21     8  0  0

Example XGboost Grid Search in Python

import sys
import math
import numpy as np
from sklearn.grid_search import GridSearchCV
sys.path.append('xgboost/wrapper/')import xgboost as xgb
class XGBoostClassifier():
    def __init__(self, num_boost_round=10, **params):
        self.clf = None
        self.num_boost_round = num_boost_round
        self.params = params
        self.params.update({'objective': 'multi:softprob'})
    def fit(self, X, y, num_boost_round=None):
        num_boost_round = num_boost_round or self.num_boost_round
        self.label2num = dict((label, i) for i, label in enumerate(sorted(set(y))))
        dtrain = xgb.DMatrix(X, label=[self.label2num[label] for label in y])
        self.clf = xgb.train(params=self.params, dtrain=dtrain, num_boost_round=num_boost_round)
    def predict(self, X):
        num2label = dict((i, label)for label, i in self.label2num.items())
        Y = self.predict_proba(X)
        y = np.argmax(Y, axis=1)
        return np.array([num2label[i] for i in y])
    def predict_proba(self, X):
        dtest = xgb.DMatrix(X)
        return self.clf.predict(dtest)
    def score(self, X, y):
        Y = self.predict_proba(X)
        return 1 / logloss(y, Y)
    def get_params(self, deep=True):
        return self.params
    def set_params(self, **params):
        if 'num_boost_round' in params:
            self.num_boost_round = params.pop('num_boost_round')
        if 'objective' in params:
            del params['objective']
        return self
def logloss(y_true, Y_pred):
    label2num = dict((name, i) for i, name in enumerate(sorted(set(y_true))))
    return -1 * sum(math.log(y[label2num[label]]) if y[label2num[label]] > 0 else -np.inf for y, label in zip(Y_pred, y_true)) / len(Y_pred)

def main():
    clf = XGBoostClassifier(
        eval_metric = 'auc',
        num_class = 2,
        nthread = 4,
        eta = 0.1,
        num_boost_round = 80,
        max_depth = 12,
        subsample = 0.5,
        colsample_bytree = 1.0,
        silent = 1,
    parameters = {
        'num_boost_round': [100, 250, 500],
        'eta': [0.05, 0.1, 0.3],
        'max_depth': [6, 9, 12],
        'subsample': [0.9, 1.0],
        'colsample_bytree': [0.9, 1.0],
    clf = GridSearchCV(clf, parameters, n_jobs=1, cv=2)[[1,2], [3,4], [2,1], [4,3], [1,0], [4,5]], ['a', 'b', 'a', 'b', 'a', 'b'])
    best_parameters, score, _ = max(clf.grid_scores_, key=lambda x: x[1])
    for param_name in sorted(best_parameters.keys()):
        print("%s: %r" % (param_name, best_parameters[param_name]))

if __name__ == '__main__':

R: Remove constant and identical features programmatically

<div>##### Removing constant features</div>
<div>cat("\n## Removing the constants features.\n")</div>
<div>for (f in names(train)) {</div>
<div>  if (length(unique(train[[f]])) == 1) {</div>
<div>    cat(f, "is constant in train. We delete it.\n")</div>
<div>    train[[f]] <- NULL</div>
<div>    test[[f]] <- NULL</div>
<div>  }</div>
<div>##### Removing identical features</div>
<div>features_pair <- combn(names(train), 2, simplify = F)</div>
<div>toRemove <- c()</div>
<div>for(pair in features_pair) {</div>
<div>  f1 <- pair[1]</div>
<div>  f2 <- pair[2]</div>
<div>  if (!(f1 %in% toRemove) & !(f2 %in% toRemove)) {</div>
<div>    if (all(train[[f1]] == train[[f2]])) {</div>
<div>      cat(f1, "and", f2, "are equals.\n")</div>
<div>      toRemove <- c(toRemove, f2)</div>
<div>    }</div>
<div>  }</div>


R: microbenchmark, reshaping big data features

pacman::p_load(data.table, microbenchmark )

train train_mat

f1 f2



Kaggle – my brief shining moment in the top 10

I started playing with the (all too addictive) Kaggle competitions this past December, on and off.

This past week I reached a personal high point by making the top 10 in a featured competition for the first time.


Since then, my ranking has dropped a bit, but there’s still time for me to take first! 😉 Just don’t hold your breath…

R: Remove constant and identical features programmatically

##### Removing constant features
cat("\n## Removing the constants features.\n")
for (f in names(train)) {
  if (length(unique(train[[f]])) == 1) {
    cat(f, "is constant in train. We delete it.\n")
    train[[f]] <- NULL
    test[[f]] <- NULL

##### Removing identical features
features_pair <- combn(names(train), 2, simplify = F)
toRemove <- c()
for(pair in features_pair) {
  f1 <- pair[1]
  f2 <- pair[2]

  if (!(f1 %in% toRemove) & !(f2 %in% toRemove)) {
    if (all(train[[f1]] == train[[f2]])) {
      cat(f1, "and", f2, "are equals.\n")
      toRemove <- c(toRemove, f2)


R: Setup a grid search for xgboost (!!)

I find this code super useful because R’s implementation of xgboost (and to my knowledge Python’s) otherwise lacks support for a grid search:

# set up the cross-validated hyper-parameter search
xgb_grid_1 = expand.grid(
nrounds = 1000,
eta = c(0.01, 0.001, 0.0001),
max_depth = c(2, 4, 6, 8, 10),
gamma = 1

# pack the training control parameters
xgb_trcontrol_1 = trainControl(
method = "cv",
number = 5,
verboseIter = TRUE,
returnData = FALSE,
returnResamp = "all",                                                        # save losses across all models
classProbs = TRUE,                                                           # set to TRUE for AUC to be computed
summaryFunction = twoClassSummary,
allowParallel = TRUE

# train the model for each parameter combination in the grid,
#   using CV to evaluate
xgb_train_1 = train(
x = as.matrix(df_train %>%
y = as.factor(df_train$SeriousDlqin2yrs),
trControl = xgb_trcontrol_1,
tuneGrid = xgb_grid_1,
method = "xgbTree"

# scatter plot of the AUC against max_depth and eta
ggplot(xgb_train_1$results, aes(x = as.factor(eta), y = max_depth, size = ROC, color = ROC)) +
geom_point() +
theme_bw() +
scale_size_continuous(guide = "none")</code>


Machine Learning: Definition of %Var(y) in R’s randomForest package’s regression method

The second column is simply the first column divided by the variance of the response that have been OOB up to that point (20 trees), times 100. 

Stats: Gini Importance in Random Forest Models

Every time a split of a node is made on variable m the gini impurity criterion for the two descendent nodes is less than the parent node. Adding up the gini decreases for each individual variable over all trees in the forest gives a fast variable importance that is often very consistent with the permutation importance measure.

Download: Hack-R Classification Performance Stats Cheatsheet

There are lots of common, mostly very simple, statistics used in experimentation and classification. You find them in Machine Learning courses, medical literature and just about everywhere.

There are some handy resources out there, such as a table of formulas for common performance measures in classification from University of Alberta, but I’ve still noticed a bit of a gap between the stats I commonly see when running validation on algorithms in various software packages and what’s in those cheatsheets.

I made my own, which you may download and reproduce freely (just do me a favor and link to this blog).


It has everything from University of Alberta’s reference table (i.e. all the basics), all the stats used in the handy cofusionMatrix function in R’s caret package and a few others I threw in for good measure.


Download the PDF

Stackoverflow Solutions

Just started! Have not answered any questions.